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Die Zukunft ist virtuell
(2020)

Der Beitrag skizziert einleitend grundlegende Defizite in Lerneinheiten der Automatisierungstechnik. Als Lösungskonzept werden Digitale Zwillinge der Maschinen vorgeschlagen, die mit realer Steuerungsalgorithmik und AR/VR kombiniert werden. Die informationstechnische Umsetzung dieses Konzepts in der `Digital Twin as a Service ́ Plattform ermöglicht die Entwicklung und Bereitstellung von AR/VR-Lernszenarien. Auf Basis der technologischen Beschreibung werden vier Lernszenarien aus der Robotik aufgezeigt, die bereits in der beruflichen Bildung, der Hochschulbildung und der industriellen Bildung erfolgreich eingesetzt werden. Am Beispiel eines ausgewählten Lernszenarios werden die Lernziele und das didaktische Design detailliert betrachtet. Abschließend wird auf die Evaluierung eingegangen. Ergänzend zu diesem schriftlichen Beitrag ist unter https://www.virtual-automation-lab.de/avril2020 ein Kurzvideo über das Lösungskonzept, die Software-Plattform sowie die Lernszenarien abrufbar.

Moderne Visualisierungsmethoden wie bspw. Mixed Reality Methoden in Kombination mit Digitalen Zwillingen eröffnen neue Formen der Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion bei der Offline-Programmierung von Industrierobotern. Durch die Verschmelzung von realen und virtuellen Inhalten ist eine intuitivere dreidimensionale Interaktion zwischen Mensch und Digitalem Zwilling möglich. Bislang verhindern jedoch die plattform- und endgeräteabhängige Entwicklung der Anwendungen sowie die fehlenden Schnittstellen zwischen modernen Endgeräten, Digitalen Zwillingen und der industriellen Steuerungstechnik den breiten Einsatz dieser Technologien. Mit diesen Herausforderungen beschäftigt sich das Forschungslabor Virtual Automation Lab (VAL) der Fakultät Maschinenbau an der Hochschule Esslingen. Kernkompetenz des VAL ist die Erforschung und der Einsatz von Mixed Reality Methoden im Maschinenbau. Ergänzend wird im Rahmen der vom Land BW finanzierten Transferinitiative „Transferplattform BW Industrie 4.0“ Forschungstransfer für kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) geleistet. Das in Kooperation mit den Hochschulen Aalen und Reutlingen und der Steinbeis-Stiftung durchgeführte Transferprojekt soll einen niederschwelligen Zugang für KMU zu Themen wie servicebasierter Einsatz von Digitalen Zwillingen im industriellen Umfeld, webbasiertes 3D-Maschinenmonitoring und Mixed Reality Anwendungen ermöglichen. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags wird die am VAL entwickelte Digital Twin as a Service – Plattform, die Interaktionsabstraktion und -modellierung zur eingabegeräteunabhängigen intuitiven Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion sowie ein auf Basis dieser Plattform entwickelter Digitaler Zwilling der Maschinenbaulabore der Hochschule Esslingen mit Anbindung an Offline-Programmiersysteme von Roboterherstellern, vorgestellt.

Processing of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) in the injection molding process has a high economic potential. Since there are some fundamental differences compared to classical thermoplastic injection molding, up to now there is a lack of well‐founded knowledge of the process which allows an estimation of the cycle time. Because, in addition to reverse temperature control, LSR processing also involves an irreversible temperature‐ and time‐dependent chemical reaction. In this paper, the complex cross‐linking reaction is first modelled phenomenologically using dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and the well‐fitting Kamal‐Sourour model. Afterwards, a temperature and cross‐linking simulation is set up, which reliably simulates the time‐ and travel‐dependent temperature profile and degree of cross‐linking in the mold. Therefore, the released exothermic cross‐linking heat is also taken into account. The simulated temperature values are verified with measurements in the cavity during the injection molding process. The measured values correspond very well with the simulated values at different mold temperatures. It is shown that the influence of the cross‐linking heat on the overall temperature profile in the LSR component during the injection molding process is relatively low. Nevertheless, the model is necessary to determine the degree of cross‐linking ‐ it can be used to calculate the cycle time at which the component of a certain cross‐section can be ejected at a known tool temperature and is fully cross‐linked. With this knowledge, existing processes can be optimized in terms of mold temperature and curing time, but also new components can be calculated economically.

In this chapter, to investigate the tensile behavior of CNTs, finite element models of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in perfect and doped modes for common types of carbon nanotube (CNT) configuration, i.e., the armchair, zigzag, and chiral models, were generated using a commercial finite element software (MSC Marc). To create the computational models, nodes were placed at the locations of carbon atoms and the bonds between them were modeled using three-dimensional elastic generalized beam elements. Doped models were simulated by three different heteroatoms including silicon, nitrogen, and boron separately with the doping concentration ranging from 0 to 5%. Young’s moduli of all models were obtained and compared with the perfect structures. The results indicated that Young’s modulus of chiral SWCNTs is larger than the moduli of the armchair and zigzag SWCNTs in all models and incorporating the silicon and boron atoms into CNT led to a linear reduction in Young’s modulus which was most significant for silicon and less noticeable for boron. Regarding nitrogen doping, a different trend was observed that was a negligible and less conspicuous increment in the value of Young’s modulus by increasing the percentage of doping. Besides, this behavior was the same for all armchair, zigzag, and chiral configurations with the same dopant atom. The investigations also revealed that the structural irregularity and ripples, which are induced by dopant atoms, are a key factor which influences the tensile behavior of CNTs. Our results for Young’s modulus of doped CNTs are in good agreement with recent investigations.

We consider the mixed initial-boundary value problem in the context of the
Moore-Gibson-Thompson theory of thermoelasticity for dipolar bodies. We consider the case of heat conduction with dissipation. Even if the elasticity tensors
are not supposed to be positively defined, we have proven both, the uniqueness
and the instability of the solution of the mixed problem. In the case that the mass
density and the thermal conductivity tensor are positive, we obtain the uniqueness
of the solution using some Lagrange type identities.

Mobilitätshilfen sind allgegenwärtig und existenziell für Menschen, die aufgrund von Krankheit und Pflegebedürftigkeit in ihren Alltagsbewegungen und -fortbewegungen eingeschränkt sind. Mobilität steht in einem direkten Zusammenhang zur Selbstständig-keit und Selbstbestimmung im Alltag. Für viele pflegebedürftige Menschen sind Mobili-tätshilfen entscheiden dafür, ob sie ihren Alltag (wieder) selbst gestalten können. Dabei müssen sie sich innerhalb und außerhalb von Räumen ganz unterschiedlichen Heraus-forderungen stellen. Teilhabe am sozialen, möglicherweise auch am beruflichen Leben wird für viele Betroffene erst dann möglich, wenn die unterschiedlichen Mobilitätshilfen aufeinander und auf die jeweiligen Aktivitäten abgestimmt sind. Für Angehörige und für Pflegefachpersonen stellt sich täglich die Frage, mit welchen Mobilitätshilfen eine siche-re und angemessene Unterstützung möglich ist. Dabei gilt es, die Ausstattung mit Hilfen dem aktuellen Mobilitätsprofil der Betroffenen anzupassen; die Folgen von Über- oder Unterversorgung mit Mobilitätshilfen kann für die Betroffenen gravierende negative Folgen haben!

Effect of voids in a heat-flux dependent theory for thermoelastic bodies with dipolar structure
(2020)

Due to the good mechanical properties, flax fiber-reinforced epoxy composites
are being widely used as a green alternative to glass fiber composites. However,
plant fibers absorb moisture from the environment, being in a higher moisture
uptake as the relative humidity (RH) increases. This absorbed moisture deteriorates the mechanical properties of the composites. In this study, geometric
and displacement potential function (DPF) approaches are used to predict the
mechanical properties of flax fiber-reinforced epoxy composites under environmental conditions, in particular, different RH values. The tensile properties
that were measured experimentally strongly agreed with the analytical findings.
Almost similar results were found for the tensile strain those were measured
experimentally and the one predicted by the geometric function.
However, the predicted strain values were 38% and 42% less than the experimental ones for 0% and 95% RH conditioned composites, respectively, when
DPF was used. Good conformity between the experimental, analytical, and
DPF formulation for predicting mechanical properties ensures the practical
applicability of this study. The formulations established in this work could,
therefore, be utilized to analytically solve laminated composites under specific
boundary conditions in structural applications.

The moisture absorption behavior of flax fiber-reinforced epoxy composites is deliberated to be a serious issue. This property restricts their usage as outdoor engineering structures. Therefore, this study provides an investigation of moisture in flax fibers on the performance of the flax/epoxy composite materials based on their shear responses. The ±45° aligned flax fibers exposed to different relative humidities (RH) and the vacuum infusion process was used to manufacture the composite specimens. The optimum shear strength (40.25 ± 0.75 MPa) was found for the composites manufactured with 35% RH-conditioned flax fibers, but the shear modulus was reduced consistently with increasing RH values. Although shear strength was increased because of fiber swelling with increased moisture absorption rate until 35% RH environments with good microstructures, nonetheless, strength and modulus both started to decrease after this range. A very poor microstructure has been affirmed by the SEM images of the composite samples conditioned at 90% RH environments.

In our present paper, we approach the mixed problem with initial and boundary conditions, in the context of thermoelasticity without energy dissipation of bodies with a dipolar structure. Our first result is a reciprocal relation for the mixed problem which is reformulated by including the initial data into the field equations. Then, we deduce a generalization of Gurtin’s variational principle, which covers our generalized theory for bodies with a dipolar structure. It is important to emphasize that both results are obtained in a very general context, namely that of anisotropic and inhomogeneous environments, having a center of symmetry at each point.

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneering technique (hand-layering vs. milling) on the fracture resistance of bi-layer implant-supported zirconia-based hybrid-abutment crowns. Mandibular molar copings were anatomically designed and milled. Copings were then veneered by hand-layering (HL) (n = 20) and milling using the Cad-On technique (LD) (n = 20). Crowns were cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments. Ten samples of each group acted as a control while the remaining ten samples were subjected to fatigue in a chewing simulator. Crowns were loaded between 50 and 100 N for 1.2 million cycles under simultaneous temperature fluctuation between 5 and 55 °C. Crowns were then subjected to static load a to fracture test. Data were statistically analysed using the one-way ANOVA. Randomly selected crowns from each group were observed under scanning electron microscopy to view fractured surfaces. Study results indicate that during fatigue, LD crowns had a 100% survival rate; while HL crowns had a 50% failure rate. Fracture resistance of LD crowns was statistically significantly higher than that of HL crowns at the baseline and after fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). However, fatigue did not cause a statistically significant reduction in fracture resistance in both LD and HL groups (p > 0.05). Copings fractured in the LD crowns only and the fracture path was different in both LD and HL groups. According to the results, it was concluded that milled veneer implant-supported hybrid-abutment crowns exhibit significantly higher fracture resistance, and better withstand clinical masticatory loads in the posterior region compared to the hand-layered technique. Also, fatigue application and artificial aging caused no significant strength reduction in both techniques. Clinical significance: Different veneering techniques and materials (hand-layering or milling) act differently to clinical forces and environment and may be prone to early chipping during service. Therefore, practitioners are urged to consider the appropriate veneering protocol for posterior implant-supported hybrid-abutment restorations.

Our study is dedicated to a composite, which, in fact, is a mixture of two thermoelastic micropolar bodies. We formulate the mixed initial boundary value problem in this context and define the domain of influence for given data. For any solution of the mixed problem we associate a measure and prove a second-order differential inequality for it. Based on the maximum principle for the heat equation and on the second-order differential inequality, we establish an estimate which proves that the thermal and the mechanical effects, at large distance from the domain of influence, are dominated by an exponential decay.

Hot isostatic pressing can be utilized to reduce the anisotropic mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloys fabricated by laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF). The implementation of post processing densification processes can open up new fields of application by meeting high quality requirements defined by aircraft and automotive industries. A gas pressure of 75 MPa during hot isostatic pressing lowers the critical cooling rate required to achieve a supersaturated solid solution. Direct aging uses this pressure related effect during heat treatment in modern hot isostatic presses, which offer advanced cooling capabilities, thereby avoiding the necessity of a separate solution annealing step for Al–Si–Mg cast alloys. Hot isostatic pressing, followed by rapid quenching, was applied to both sand cast as well as laser powder-bed fused Al–Si–Mg aluminum alloys. It was shown that the critical cooling rate required to achieve a supersaturated solid solution is significantly higher for additively manufactured, age-hardenable aluminum alloys than it is for comparable sand cast material. The application of hot isostatic pressing can be combined with heat treatment, consisting of solution annealing, quenching and direct aging, in order to achieve both a dense material with a small number of preferred locations for the initiation of fatigue cracks and a high material strength.

The methodology of the approximation and interpretation of thermal desorption spectra (TDS) of hydrogen in some carbon nanostructures and graphite has been developed and applied for such materials.
The methodology is based on a definite approximation by the symmetrical Gaussians of the hydrogen thermal desorption spectra, obtained by using one single heating rate, for carbon materials and nanomaterials, and a definite processing of the Gaussians, in the approximation of the first-order reactions and the second-order ones. It results in determining (with a satisfactory accuracy, for the further physical analysis), from TDS data of one single heating rate, the activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the rate constants of desorption processes corresponding to the main TDS peaks with different temperatures of the maximum desorption rate. The developed methodology contains several successive steps of its implementation, including the use of several “criterions of truth” and the final verification and/or modification of the results, with the help of numerical modeling methods. This technique is not less informative, but much less time-consuming in experimental terms compared to the generally accepted classical Kissinger method, which demands using of several heating rates, and has strict limits of applicability. Furthermore, the methodology allows one to reveal physics and atomic mechanisms of the main desorption processes through thermodynamic analysis of the obtained peak characteristics and comparison with the corresponding independent experimental and theoretical data.
The purpose of such a methodology is to further reveal the weakly studied physics of the main states of hydrogen in carbon materials and nanomaterials, and not the thorough detailed mathematical description of the spectra. For this case, both the large difference and the large spread of the known experimental and theoretical values of the thermodynamic characteristics of the main desorption processes, important for hydrogen storage problems, are also taken into account.

Additive manufacturing offers unique possibilities to produce complex components, which would not be possible or only very difficult to be realizable with conventional manufacturing processes. The potential of additive manufacturing of aluminum alloys has already been realized in prototyping, but still offers potential in the establishment of series applications. For enabling the establishment of additive manufacturing in series applications, comprehensive knowledge about the material behavior is necessary. This study examines the torsional behavior of additive manufactured AlSi10Mg samples and shows the correlation between tensile and torsional strength. Comprehensive torsion tests with strain gauges were performed and significant directional dependencies were shown. The correlation factor in the area of torsional yield strength/tensile yield strength and torsional strength/tensile strength was determined and was compared with the yield/failure conditions according to Tresca and von Mises.

Herein, the general constitutive equation of bi-phasic materials equipped with orientation tensor is presented in direct notation. The formulation is refined by some correction factors specific to natural fibre-reinforced composites; then, a planar case is derived. The necessity of local information is emphasised through the introduction of auxiliary maps, which included volume fraction and orientation data. A semi-analytical homogenisation method is introduced through finite element analysis. Auxiliary maps are shown to be a better alternative to the overall orientation of fibres. Global calculations are insensitive to local variations whilst appropriate auxiliary maps offer refined results. Considering the multidisciplinary application of orientation tensors, the proposed scheme can be used in all areas where local information cannot be disregarded.

Laser powder bed fusion has become one of the major techniques within metal additive manufacturing, especially when delicate structures and high geometric accuracy are concerned. Lately, the awareness of the material-specific macroscopic anisotropy has risen and led to widespread investigations on the static mechanical strength. However, little is known about the fracture behavior of the layer-wise fabricated metal components and their affinity of crack propagation between consecutive layers, which is particularly important for aluminium–silicon alloys containing embrittled zones in double-irradiated areas. A recent study indicated that there is a significant drop in fracture toughness in case the crack growth direction is parallel to the layering. To investigate this matter further and to shed light on the fracture toughness behavior in the range of a 0°–45° angle offset between the crack growth direction relative to the layering, notched samples with varying polar angles were subjected to mode I fracture toughness testing. Our results indicate that the fracture toughness is an almost-stable characteristic up to a mismatch of about 20° between the crack propagation path and the layering, at which point the fracture toughness decreases by up to 10%.

Metal additive manufacturing of dental prostheses consisting of cobalt−chromium−tungsten (Co−Cr−W) alloys poses an alternative to investment casting. However, metal additive manufacturing processes like Laser Powder‐Bed Fusion (LPBF) can impact the elastic constants and the mechanical anisotropy of the resulting material. To investigate the phase compositions of mechanically different specimens in dependence of their postprocessing steps (e. g. heat treatment to relieve stress), the current study uses X‐ray Diffraction (XRD), Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for phase identification. Our studies connect plastic deformation of Remanium star CL alloy with the formation of the hexagonal ϵ‐phase and heat treatment with the formation of the D024‐phase, while partially explaining previously observed differences in Young's moduli.

The characteristics and atomic mechanisms (physics) of processes of thermal desorption of deuterium from isotropic graphite at temperatures 700–1700 K are considered.

Development of environment-friendly natural fiber composites has been a recent trend. However, due to the fact that natural fibers permit high level of moisture absorption from the surroundings, it can lead to weak bindings and degradation of composite properties. This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamic performance of flax fiber composite beams manufactured at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Five types of flax fiber-reinforced composite materials were made under different RH values, i.e., dry, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 95% RH, and beam samples were prepared using the composite. Impact hammer testing was conducted to measure the natural frequencies and damping of the beams. It was found that for the first three modes, while the resonant frequencies are very close for most samples, there is a clear drop of frequencies for the composite fabricated at 95% RH. Along with an increase of the RH level, the damping ratios for all the three modes have reported a slight increase, but the variation is not significant.

Das Interesse der Industrie an additiv gefertigten Bauteilen steigt z unehmend, wobei mit zunehmendem Verständnis der statischen Kennwerte nunmehr der Fokus in Richtung der dynamischen Festigkeiten wandert. Deswegen werden Einflussparameter auf die Lebensdauer und potenzielle Nachbearbeitungsmethoden untersucht und analysiert. Ein großer Einfluss ist dabei der Oberflächengüte und den durch Rautiefen initiierten Kerbeffekten zuzuschreiben. Deswegen werden unterschiedliche Methoden zur Verbesserung der Oberflächengüte untersucht. Dabei werden die Verfahren Laserpolieren, elektrochemisches Polieren und Hartmetallkugelstrahlen und deren Auswirkung auf Oberflächengüte sowie Härte untersucht. Für das elektrochemische Polieren werden die Proben in einer Perchlorsäure für 90 s bei 32 V und maximal 10 A poliert. Das Hartmetallkugelstrahlen wird mit einem UFS 100 Strahlmittel bei einem Druck von 4 bar und einer Strahldauer von 10 s ausgeführt. Anschließend werden Wöhlerlinien für die unterschiedlichen Zustände mittels Umlaufbiegeversuch ermittelt, welche mit Referenzwerten analysierter konventioneller Proben verglichen werden. Des Weiteren werden die Bruchflächen analysiert. Die Untersuchungen ergaben ein hohes Optimierungspotenzial der additiv gefertigten Proben bei einer Verdichtung der Oberfläche sowie einer Entfernung der Randschicht durch eine spanende Bearbeitung. Dadurch wurden höhere Zeitfestigkeiten als mit konventionell gefertigten Proben erreicht.

Laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) has significantly gained in importance and has become one of the major fabrication techniques within metal additive manufacturing. The fast cooling rates achieved in LPBF due to a relatively small melt pool on a much larger component or substrate, acting as heat sink, result in fine-grained microstructures and high oversaturation of alloying elements in the α-aluminum. Al-Si-Mg alloys thus can be effectively precipitation hardened. Moreover, the solidified material undergoes an intrinsic heat treatment, whilst the layers above are irradiated and the elevated temperature in the built chamber starts the clustering process of alloying elements directly after a scan track is fabricated. These silicon-magnesium clusters were observed with atom probe tomography in as-built samples. Similar beneficial clustering behavior at higher temperatures is known from the direct-aging approach in cast samples, whereby the artificial aging is performed immediately after solution annealing and quenching. Transferring this approach to LPBF samples as a possible post-heat treatment revealed that even after direct aging, the outstanding hardness of the as-built condition could, at best, be met, but for most instances it was significantly lower. Our investigations showed that LPBF Al-Si-Mg exhibited a high dependency on the quenching rate, which is significantly more pronounced than in cast reference samples, requiring two to three times higher quenching rate after solution annealing to yield similar hardness results. This suggests that due to the finer microstructure and the shorter diffusion path in Al-Si-Mg fabricated by LPBF, it is more challenging to achieve a metastable oversaturation necessary for precipitation hardening. This may be especially problematic in larger components.

This study is concerned with the linear elasticity theory for bodies with a dipolar structure. In this context, we approach transient elastic processes and the steady state in a cylinder consisting of such kind of body which is only subjected to some boundary restrictions at a plane end. We will show that at a certain distance d=d(t), which can be calculated, from the loaded plan, the deformation of the body vanishes. For the points of the cylinder located at a distance less than d, we will use an appropriate measure to assess the decreasing of the deformation relative to the distance from the loaded plane end. The fact that the measure, that assess the deformation, decays with respect to the distance at the loaded end is the essence of the principle of Saint-Venant.

In our study, we consider the linear mixed initial boundary value problem for a porous elastic body having a dipolar structure. The equations that describe the elastic dipolar deformations are coupled with the equations which describe the evolution of the voids by means of certain coefficients. Our main result proves the continuous dependence of solutions for the mixed problem with regard to the coefficients which perform this coupling. Using an adequate measure, we can evaluate the continuous dependence by means of some estimate regarding the gradient of deformations and the gradient of the function that describes the evolution of the voids.

This book contains the selected and peer-reviewed manuscripts that were presented in the Conferences on Multidisciplinary Engineering and Technology (COMET 2019), held at the University Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute (UniKL MSI), Kedah, Malaysia from September 18 to 19, 2019. The aim of COMET 2019 was to present current and on-going research being carried out in the field of mechanical, manufacturing, electrical and electronics and general studies for engineering and technology. Besides, this book also contains the manuscripts from the System Engineering and Energy Laboratory (SEELAB) research cluster, UniKL which is actively doing research mainly focused on artificial intelligence, metal air batteries, advanced battery materials and energy material modelling fields. This volume is the third edition of the progress in engineering technology, Advanced Structured Materials which provides in-depth ongoing research activities among academia of UniKL MSI. Lastly, it is hoped to foster cooperation among organisations and research in the covered fields.

This book provides an update on recent advances in various areas of modern engineering design, such as mechanical, materials, computer, and process engineering, which provide the foundation for the development of improved structures, materials, and processes. The modern design cycle is characterized by the interaction of different disciplines and a strong shift toward computer-based approaches involving only a small number of experiments for verification purposes. A major driver for this development is the increased demand for cost reduction, which is also connected to environmental demands. In the transportation industry (e.g. automotive or aerospace), where there is a demand for greater fuel efficiency, one solution is lighter structures and/or improved processes for energy conversion. Another emerging area is the interaction of classical engineering with the health and medical sector.

This book offers an update on recent developments in modern engineering design. Different engineering disciplines, such as mechanical, materials, computer and process engineering, provide the foundation for the design and development of improved structures, materials and processes. The modern design cycle is characterized by the interaction between various disciplines and a strong shift to computer-based approaches where only a few experiments are conducted for verification purposes. A major driver for this development is the increased demand for cost reduction, which is also linked to environmental demands. In the transportation industry (e.g. automotive or aerospace), the demand for higher fuel efficiency is related to reduced operational costs and less environmental damage. One way to fulfil such requirements is lighter structures and/or improved processes for energy conversion. Another emerging area is the interaction of classical engineering with the health and medical sector.

This Encyclopedia covers the entire science of continuum mechanics including the mechanics of materials and fluids. The encyclopedia comprises mathematical definitions for continuum mechanical modeling, fundamental physical concepts, mechanical modeling methodology, numerical approaches and many fundamental applications. The modelling and analytical techniques are powerful tools in mechanical civil and areospsace engineering, plus in related fields of plasticity, viscoelasticity and rheology. Tensor-based and reference-frame-independent, continuum mechanics has recently found applications in geophysics and materials.

Der Grundgedanke dieser Einführung in die Methode der Finiten Elemente wird von dem Konzept getragen, die komplexe Methode nur anhand eindimensionaler Elemente zu erläutern. Somit bleibt die mathematische Beschreibung weitgehend einfach und überschaubar. Das Augenmerk liegt in jedem Kapitel auf der Erläuterung der Methode und deren Verständnis selbst. Der Leser lernt die Annahmen und Ableitungen bei verschiedenen physikalischen Problemstellungen in der Strukturmechanik zu verstehen und Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Methode der Finiten Elemente kritisch zu beurteilen.
Die Beschränkung auf eindimensionale Elemente ermöglicht somit das methodische Verständnis wichtiger Themenbereiche (z.B. Plastizität oder Verbundwerkstoffe), die einem angehenden Berechnungsingenieur in der Berufspraxis begegnen, jedoch in dieser Form nur selten an Hochschulen behandelt werden. Somit ist ein einfacher Einstieg – auch in weiterführende Anwendungsgebiete – durch das Konzept (a) Einführung in die Grundlagen (b) exakte Ableitung bei Beschränkung auf eindimensionale Elemente (und in vielen Fällen auch auf eindimensionale Probleme) (c) Umfangreiche Beispiele und weiterführende Aufgaben (mit Kurzlösung im Anhang) gewährleistet.
Zur Veranschaulichung wird jedes Kapitel sowohl mit ausführlich durchgerechneten und kommentierten Beispielen als auch mit weiterführenden Aufgaben inklusive Kurzlösungen vertieft.

Stoff- und Formleichtbau
(2020)

Dieses Lehrbuch stellt die unterschiedlichen Leichtbaukonzepte anhand einfacher eindimensionaler Strukturen in sehr verständlicher Weise dar und ermöglicht einen leichten Einstieg in das Thema. Es werden nachvollziehbare Informationen und Hinweise zur Werkstoffauswahl und geometrischen Gestaltung von Bauteilen gegeben.

A Review on Dental Materials
(2020)

This book discusses the current biomaterials used for dental applications and the basic sciences underpinning their application. The most critical structures in the oral cavity are the teeth, which play a central role in speaking, biting, chewing, tasting and swallowing. Teeth consist of three types of tissue: the cementum, enamel and dentin, with bone and gingival tissue serving as supporting structures. Caries, tooth wear, trauma and mechanical defects can lead to severe facial conditions; however, correcting these defects remains a challenge for scientists and dentists. Presenting insights form a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, biology, physiology and clinical science, this book provides a timely review of the principles, processing and application of dental materials.

This study aid on numerical optimization techniques is intended for university undergraduate and postgraduate mechanical engineering students. Optimization procedures are becoming more and more important for lightweight design, where weight reduction can, for example in the case of automotive or aerospace industry, lead to lower fuel consumption and a corresponding reduction in operational costs as well as beneficial effects on the environment. Based on the free computer algebra system Maxima, the authors present procedures for numerically solving problems in engineering mathematics as well as applications taken from traditional courses on the strength of materials. The mechanical theories focus on the typical one-dimensional structural elements, i.e., springs, bars, and Euler–Bernoulli beams, in order to reduce the complexity of the numerical framework and limit the resulting design to a low number of variables. The use of a computer algebra system and the incorporated functions, e.g., for derivatives or equation solving, allows a greater focus on the methodology of the optimization methods and not on standard procedures.
The book also provides numerous examples, including some that can be solved using a graphical approach to help readers gain a better understanding of the computer implementation.

Bone Cement
(2020)

This book provides an overview of the composition of polymeric and ceramic bone cements. It also discusses complex, biomimetic structures based on biomaterials, such as cells and bioactive molecules, which more closely resemble natural bone
The first chapter describes the main concepts of the cementation process and the parameters affecting it, while the second chapter focuses on the composition and structure of candidate biomaterials. Lastly, the third and fourth chapters present recent research aimed at improving the ability of naked biomaterials to enhance bone healing by adding cells and bioactive agents.

This book is the second edition of an introduction to modern computational mechanics based on the finite element method. It includes more details on the theory, more exercises, and more consistent notation; in addition, all pictures have been revised. Featuring more than 100 pages of new material, the new edition will help students succeed in mechanics courses by showing them how to apply the fundamental knowledge they gained in the first years of their engineering education to more advanced topics.
In order to deepen readers’ understanding of the equations and theories discussed, each chapter also includes supplementary problems. These problems start with fundamental knowledge questions on the theory presented in the respective chapter, followed by calculation problems. In total, over 80 such calculation problems are provided, along with brief solutions for each.
This book is especially designed to meet the needs of Australian students, reviewing the mathematics covered in their first two years at university. The 13-week course comprises three hours of lectures and two hours of tutorials per week.

The derivation and understanding of Partial Differential Equations relies heavily on the fundamental knowledge of the first years of scientific education, i.e., higher mathematics, physics, materials science, applied mechanics, design, and programming skills. Thus, it is a challenging topic for prospective engineers and scientists.
This volume provides a compact overview on the classical Partial Differential Equations of structural members in mechanics. It offers a formal way to uniformly describe these equations. All derivations follow a common approach: the three fundamental equations of continuum mechanics, i.e., the kinematics equation, the constitutive equation, and the equilibrium equation, are combined to construct the partial differential equations.

Augmented Reality (AR) und Mixed Reality (MR) bieten das Potential für zahlreiche Anwendungen im Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). In diesem Beitrag wird ein Ansatz zur cloudbasierten (endgeräte- und standortunabhängigen) Erstellung und 3D-Visualisierung von realdatengetriebenen Augmented und Mixed Reality Szenen sowie deren Anwendung im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau vorgestellt.